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Herd Health
infectious disease management ~ health tests and vaccinations

Miniature-Cattle.com herd management herd health ~ infectious diseases, testing & vaccination programs
see also DNA tests for Genetic Diseases in Cattle
see also Biosecurity ~ Quarantine, Closed Herds
see also Sire Testing ~ What to Check Before Collecting a Bull
see also Chondrodysplasia ~ Miniature Cattle and Dwarfism

New Cattle Entering a Healthy Herd

Whenever buying or bringing in new cattle,

    1. purchase cattle from a DNA tested herd
    2. get documentation of their vaccination program
    3. place them in quarantine (see also biosecurity)
    4. while in quarantine, test for diseases that are a possible threat

Quarantine & test any new cattle you bring to your farm, for health reasons. This give you time to check the cattle, test the cattle, and watch them for a while, since the stress of sale and transport can bring out previously un-noticed health problems. Keep new cattle in quarantine for 30--60 days. During that time, you will be able to watch them closely and treat them for any internal or external parasites as needed. Have them blood tested for contagious diseases (if not already vaccinated or tested for) including BLV, BVD, BTV, Anaplasmosis, and Johnes Disease. Most new cattle will come with a current CVI health certificate (mandatory if they are purchased and transported over state lines), and a copy of the current vaccination program used by the seller. This information with your local large animal vet's advice, can help you put together a list of what to test your new cattle for while in quarantine.

Regular deworming and treatment programs for internal parasites and external parasites are recommended as needed. Check cattle for worms, flies, grubs, lice, ticks, etc. Stressed calves can succumb to scours or coccidiosis.

After 30--60 days of quarantine, introduce the new cattle to your home herd over a fence at first. Eventually allow them together. If you are unsure of their behavior when together, make sure they are in a large enough area to get away from each other if any are acting unpleasant.

Prevention: Cattle Disease Tests

Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) There is no vaccine for BLV. There is no cure. In the U.S., the most recent surveys indicate close to 90% of dairy operations and 40% of beef operations had cattle that tested seropositive for BLV. To eliminate the transfer of blood from infected animals to healthy animals is the key to prevent the spread of this virus. Avoiding blood contamination when working or AI breeding cattle, and control of biting flies should help minimize spread of BLV between animals. There are three main clinical outcomes in cattle infected with BLV:

  1. Up to 5% of infected cattle will develop full clinical manifestation of the disease: Lymphosarcoma (fatal).
  2. About 30% of BLV-infected cattle develop Persistent Lymphocytosis (PL) a benign condition, however, these carrier cows may serve as a reservoir of infection.
  3. About 65% of exposed cattle will remain asymptomatic, i.e. show no outward signs of diseasec however sub-clinically infected animals have lowered production, fertility & longevity.

The most commonly recommended BLV eradication protocol is as follows:

  1. identify infected animals using a serologic test
  2. cull seropositive animals immediately
  3. retest the herd in 30–60 days
  4. repeat testing and cull until the entire herd tests negative
  5. Testing is then repeated every 6 months. The herd is declared free when there have been no positive tests for 2 years. Additions to the herd should have 2 negative tests 60 and 30 days before arrival.

Johne's disease in cattle, (Paratuberculosis) caused by M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), a bacterium related to tuberculosis. Johne's disease affects ruminants, including cattle, sheep, and goats. This chronic intestinal disease is distributed worldwide and takes a heavy economic toll on animal producers. No vaccination [in USA], no cure. At least 8% of United States beef herds are believed to be MAP-infected. In dairy cattle, from 65% of small herds, and up to 95% of large herds in United States are believed to be MAP-infected. The dairy industry incurs substantial economic losses due to reduced milk production, premature culling, and reduced slaughter value (Raizman et al., 2009). It takes years for clinical signs to appear in animals after initial infection. The bacterium is shed in high numbers in the feces during this clinical phase of disease. Transmission is by ingestion of the bacterium while grazing on pastures contaminated by this shedding process. Milk, passed from the infected dam to the daughter, has also been shown as a transmission route (Stabel, 2008). Johne's disease has been reported in almost all countries around the world. Controlling Johne's disease: vaccination is the way forward. Johne's Disease [Cornell University].

Prevention: Core Vaccinations

It is healthier for the animal and cheaper for the small farm budget to prevent disease rather than treat it. Contagious viral infections, especially, should be prevented. Once introduced on the farm, contagious viral infections cannot be cured. Prevention involves strategic vaccination programs. The USDA National Organic Program (NOP) not only approves of vaccination, but strongly recommends it, especially for open herds (e.g., when animals are bought in or sold, animals are shown in fairs, or other animals occasionally visit on the farm). This page includes a list of infectious diseases in cattle, beginning with the most prevalent diseases commonly vaccinated for in North America.

(1) Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) complex. These are contagious viral diseases that are widespread. All herds are recommended to be vaccinated annually, usually 30 days prior to breeding.

  1. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (rednose) (IBR); agent: Bovine Herpes Virus 1: BVR-1 produces three viral diseases; Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) and Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis (IPV) in females and Infectious Balanoposthitis in males (both exhibited by genital mucosa becoming red and ulcerized).
  2. Parainfluenza-3 (PI3)
  3. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Types I and II (BVD)
  4. Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV)

(2) Clostridial Disease complex. (8-way) Agent: Widespread bacteria, in soil & wind, etc. Infection usually results from stress; unsanitary conditions, crowding, and compromised immunity. Clostridial infections can occur sporadically in herds; and in general, carry a very poor prognosis--the first sign of illness may be death. Because treatment success is rare, emphasis is properly placed on preventive measures. Cattle should be vaccinated annually with 7-way or 8-way in spring, 30 days prior to stress (close contact, branding, castration etc).

Disease Prevention Management
Optional Vaccinations

Many cattle diseases are not a threat to all herds, or are regional. There are vaccinations for some diseases, but not all - some diseases can only be avoided by testing cattle and culling infected animals. Below are diseases commonly vaccinated for in many herds of cattle, as well as some that warrant testing in any new cattle brought in while in quarantine. For your own custom herd health program, consult your local veterinarian to get recommendations for prevention of cattle disease in your region.

is a worldwide zoonotic infectious bacterial disease of many animal species causing abortion, stillbirths, milk loss and reproductive inefficiency. Lepto is caused by bacteria of genus Leptospira. Cattle, sheep and goats can get infected, but the disease does not normally manifest itself in sheep and they remain carriers. In cattle, after the first phase of the infection, the bacteria localise in the uterus and sex glands and in the kidneys. The early symptoms of infection are often so brief that in breeding cattle, subclinical or chronic infection may manifest first as abortion and lowered fertility. Estimates of leptospiral infection in a sample of US dairies and beef cow-calf operations indicated that the overall herd infection prevalence was up to 50%—with most of those infections likely caused by serovar L. hardjo (Grooms, 2004, Bolin 2003). Bovine leptospirosis vaccines available in the USA and Canada are pentavalent and contain leptospiral serovars Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Hardjo. These vaccines provide good protection against disease caused by each of these serovars, with the possible exception of serovar Hardjo. Sheep can serve as a maintenance host for serovar Hardjo and therefore spread infection to cattle. Risk factors for Hardjo infection in cattle include co-grazing with sheep, open herds, access to contaminated water sources, and use of natural breeding. Serovar hardjo has the ability to colonize and persist in the genital tract of infected cows and especially bulls. If a primary goal of a vaccination program is protection of cattle against Hardjo, care should be taken in selection of a vaccine product. In general, annual vaccination of all cattle in a closed herd or low incidence area, or twice-yearly vaccination in an open herd or high incidence area, is the most effective approach to control. Antibiotic treatment or combined antibiotic and vaccination therapy of cow herds suffering from active Leptospira-infection have been shown to have some success. Eradication may be attained in about 5-6 years in a closed herd.

Brucellosis (Brucella abortus) RB51 Bangs vaccine. Zoonotic, reportable disease. Bangs vaccine administered by a vet. given to heifers one time between 412 mos of age. For selling heifers & transporting over state lines, especially out west, Bangs vaccinating heifers is a good idea.

[more: bangs / brucellosis certified veterniary vaccination and lab testing. This nation is at a crossroads regarding the disease brucellosis. Over the past century, this disease has affected both animal and human health, food safety, international trade, and state and federal regulatory policies. After over six decades of eradication efforts and the expenditure of several billion dollars, brucellosis (Brucella abortus) has nearly been eliminated from this nation’s cattle herds. The last remaining reservoir of brucellosis is in free ranging elk and bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Current vaccine and diagnostic technologies to eliminate this disease in free ranging elk and bison are inadequate.
Brucellosis and tuberculosis – Brucellosis and tuberculosis are two highly contagious diseases carried by cattle. Similar in nature, these diseases are spread by infected material during calving. The diseases threaten humans, because the unpasteurized milk of infected cattle can spread the disease. To avoid the chances of cattle being infected by brucellosis and tuberculosis ensure cattle are bred and brought in from a reliable source, do not borrow or lend calving equipment, and isolate pregnant or infected animals.]

Listeriosis is a disease of the central nervous system, caused by the bacterium Listeria moncytogenes. This bacterium can live almost anywhere--in soil, manure piles, and grass. Listeriosis is common in cattle, sheep and goats and can occur in pigs, dogs, and cats, some wild animals, and humans. Animals infected with Listeria can show signs restlessness, loss of appetite, fever and nervous system disorders. Although not seen in every case, the most notable symptom gives this disease its nickname, "Circling Disease." Cattle with listeriosis are often seen walking in circles. Other, more subtle symptoms include uncoordinated movements, leaning against objects, and progressive paralysis. Death can occur within 2 to 3 days after the onset of symptoms, but cattle can survive for up to 2 weeks with the disease. Healthy animals are not usually affected by Listeria. Cattle with lowered resistance to disease are prime candidates for listeriosis. Recognition of symptoms is important for successful treatment. Most animals will recover if treated with a broad spectrum antibiotic started early. Diseased cattle should be separated from healthy cattle and placed on a prolonged therapy program. In herds of valuable cattle, it may be advantageous to treat the whole herd. Vaccines are not available in the U.S.

Neosporosis is found worldwide and causes to financial losses through embryonic losses, abortion, culled cattle and reduced milk production. Neospora caninum is a microscopic protozoan parasite that causes the disease neosporosis. Neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle, and can occur anytime throughout gestation. Diagnosis of Neospora caninum includes both blood testing of the aborting dam and examination of the aborted fetus by a diagnostic lab. The fetal brain is the most consistent infected tissue used to diagnose Neospora caninum. A killed vaccine is available. Administration of the vaccine has been associated with a statistical reduction in abortions. Once the vaccine has been given to a cow, the blood test for Neosporosis is no longer valid.

Trich (Trichomoniasis) (an STD) is a venereal disease of cattle that causes infertility and occasional abortions in cows, caused by Trichomonas fetus, a small motile protozoan found in the reproductive tract of the bull and cow.
• Trich organism infects the genital tract of the bull and is transmitted to the cow during breeding
• Trich can be confirmed microscopically
• Infected bulls are normally carriers for life
• Clean bulls can be infected by breeding “dirty” cows
• Prevention:
        • Vaccinate healthy herds annually prior to breeding
        • use virgin bulls
        • use certified frozen semen

Vibriosis (Campylobacter) (an STD) is a venereal disease spread by infected bulls when they mate susceptible cows. It is considered to be the most significant cause of infertility in cattle. Diagnosis is confirmed by culture of the causative organism from cervical mucus or from an aborted fetus. Vaccination involves two injections, 4-6 weeks apart in the first year, with a single dose administered each year thereafter. Vaccination should be completed 4 weeks prior to breeding. Most A.I. organizations test frozen semen to assure that it is free of vibriosis and trichomoniasis. The use of AI helps in prevention because frozen semen is treated with antibiotics to eliminate Campylobacteriosis disease organisms.

Bovine TB - bacteria, Mycobacterium bovis. No vaccination, no practical cure. Zoonotic. M. bovis infections in cattle herds in the United States is not common, however, M. bovis is endemic in white-tailed deer in parts of Michigan and Minnesota. Also, there are sporadic imports of the disease from Mexico.

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Excessive salivation, blister-like lesions on the lips, gums, tongue, dental pad, nostrils, coronary band, prepuce, vulva, and teats, with fever, are usually the first signs. The blisters swell and break, which causes oral pain and discomfort and reluctance to eat or drink. Lameness and severe weight loss may follow. Cows that suffer from teat lesions can develop mastitis. Some affected cattle can appear subclinical, other than going off their feed. VS is zoonotic and is recognized internationally as a reportable disease. While vesicular stomatitis does not generally cause animals to die, there are serious economic and regulatory repercussions associated with the diagnosis. The Southwestern and Western United States have experienced a number of VSV outbreaks, usually during warmer months, often along waterways. Surveillance is conducted by the State Departments of Agriculture in conjunction with USDA - APHIS - Veterinary Services. Veterinarians examine all animals involved in shows, exhibitions, races, and interstate or international movement.

Shipping Fever Pneumonia and (Enzootic) Calf Pneumonia (Dairy calf Pneumonia or Summer Pneumonia of beef calves). The etiology is similar to that for BRD complex in general. Widespread in stressed calves; any of several viruses may be involved, plus a variety of bacteria may be found in affected calves (most prevalent listed below). Treatment: antibiotics & supportive anti-inflammatories. Prevention: Reduce stress and vaccinate pregnant cows annually 3–4 weeks prepartum to improve the quality of colostral antibodies. Vaccinated calves 30 days before stress (weaning, shipping, exhibition, confinement, etc.). When to Treat: Calf Respiratory Scoring Chart - Total respiratory score: 4–-watch, 5 or more--treat.

  1. Pasteurella multocida
  2. Mannheimia haemolytica
  3. Mycoplasma bovis
  4. Histophilus somni (formerly known as Haemophilus somnus)

Pinkeye (Infectious B Keratoconjunctivitis) (IBK) bacteria. It is known to occur at all seasons of the year and in all breeds of cattle. There are treatments such as antibiotic & anesthetic spray for the eyes, etc., while a control program should include measures taken to reduce sources of initial eye irritation. This may be fly control, clipping pastures, providing shade, or using breeds less prone to pinkeye, and vaccinating for pinkeye prior to fly season.

Footrot, or infectious pododermatitis, is a hoof infection commonly found in sheep, goats, and cattle. As the name suggests, it rots away the foot of the animal, more specifically the area between the two toes of the affected animal. It is extremely painful and contagious. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides melaninogenicus are the predominant bacteria isolated from footrot. Footrot occurs in cattle of all ages, but it is most common in adults. The disease is seen year-round, but there is increased incidence in the wet summer and fall months.

Bloat does not have a vaccine, and is prevented by proper management, and culling. Bloat is mainly caused by an inherited tendency for bloat, exacerbated by certain proteins in forage (particularly in legumes), the coarseness of the roughage and the type of rumen microbial population. Pasture bloat usually occurs in animals grazing lush legumes (alfalfa, clover) or wheat pasture. To prevent pasture bloat in cattle you should plant pastures so that no more than 50 percent of the forage mixture is alfalfa or clover, fill cattle on dry roughage or grass pastures before turning to legume pastures, provide grass hay or graze in a rotation using grass pastures. Visual signs of bloated cattle include distension of the left side of the animal, discomfort as indicated by stomping of feet or kicking of belly, labored breathing, frequent urination and defecation, and sudden collapse.

Cancer Eye. Bovine ocular neoplasia includes a variety of benign and malignant skin tumors of the eyeball and eyelids. Cancer eye mostly affects cattle that have non-pigmented skin around the eye (often Herefords). The peak age for cancer eye is between 7 and 8 years of age. Cancer Eye can be managed by culling affected animals, and selecting cattle with pigment around their eyes.

Lumpy Jaw. Actinomycosis or lumpy jaw produces immovable hard swellings on the upper and lower jawbones of cattle, commonly at the central molar level. It is caused by an anaerobic micro-organism, Actinomyces bovis. The bacterium invades tissue through breaks in the lining of the mouth caused by eating rough forage. The tumor-like swellings develop slowly and may take several months to reach a noticeable size. The most common treatments are iodine therapy or tetracyclines. Treatment is often ineffective. If the disease is detected early, it may be better to cull the animal while it is still in good condition. Only the head should be condemned by meat inspectors, unless the lesions have spread elsewhere in the body.

Wooden tongue is an infection caused by a rod-shaped bacterium, Actinobacillus lignieresii, which lives only in the presence of oxygen. Wooden tongue occurs almost entirely in soft tissue with the tongue and lymph nodes of the head most often affected. The bacteria invades tissue through breaks in the lining of the mouth. Any rough feed can cause mouth abrasions which allow infection. The disease starts suddenly with the tongue becoming hard, swollen and painful. Affected animals drool saliva and may appear to be chewing gently. The tongue often protrudes between the lips and nodules and ulcers may be observed on the tongue. They are unable to eat or drink and rapidly lose condition. The disease is progressive and often fatal unless treated. It is important to begin treatment early, which is usually successful, while advanced cases may fail to respond. The most common treatments are iodine therapy or tetracyclines. Advanced cases may require surgical drainage and irrigation with iodine solution for several days. Treated animals should be observed regularly, as relapses can occur.

Scours in Calves. Calf scours or calf diarrhea causes more financial loss to cow-calf producers than any other disease-related problem on the farm. Recent research has indicated that many scour cases can be directly related to lack of colostrum (see Glossary) intake by the newborn calf. A calf that is well mothered and consumes 1 to 2 quarts of colostrum in the first few hours after birth absorbs a higher level of antibodies and is far less susceptible to scours and other calfhood diseases such as coccidiosis, etc.

Grass Tetany is a serious, often fatal metabolic disorder characterized by low levels of magnesium in the blood serum of cattle. It is also called grass staggers and wheat pasture poisoning. It primarily affects older cows nursing calves less than two months old, but it may also occur in young or dry cows and growing calves. It happens most frequently when cattle are grazing succulent, immature grass and often affects the best cows in the herd. The prevention of grass tetany depends largely on avoiding conditions that cause it. Graze less susceptible animals (steers, heifers, dry cows, and cows with calves over 4 months old) on higher risk pastures. In areas where tetany frequently occurs, feed cows supplemental magnesium.

Ringworm is a transmissible infectious skin disease caused most often by Trichophyton verrucosum, a spore forming fungi. It occurs in all species of mammals including cattle and man. Although unsightly, fungal infections cause little damage or economic loss. Ringworm fungi spores can remain alive for years in a dry environment. Direct contact with infected animals is the most common method of spreading the infection. Ringworm is most frequent on the head and neck, but it may be found over the entire body in severe cases. Infection spreads from the center outwards and resulting in a circular lesion. Scabs fall from older lesions leaving a ring with a hairless area in the center. Hence, the name ringworm. Ringworm will usually cure itself without treatment. Common treatments include topical application of a 2% solution of iodine, thiabendazole paste or any good fungicide. Cattle usually become immune to ringworm after the first instance of it.

Warts in cattle are caused by the contagious virus papillomavirus. Four types of the virus are known to produce warts on cattle. Calves are most susceptible with few warts seen in cattle over 2 years of age. Warts appear 1 to 6 months after infection with the virus. Not all animals carrying the virus will have warts. It can be transmitted from the unapparent carrier to the susceptible calf. Warts are usually more of an appearance problem than a physical problem. Warts usually shrink and drop off after a few months. This spontaneous recovery is probably the basis for the alleged effectiveness of many home remedies. Warts can also be removed surgically with a scissors or a side cutter. If there is a severe outbreat in the herd an autogenous vaccine can be prepared from chemically treated warts taken from animals in the affected herd. This autogenous vaccine is more apt to have the strain or type of papillomavirus causing the wart problem in the herd than commercial vaccines.

Bluetongue Virus BTV: is a non-contagious infectious disease usually transmitted by biting insects. Most infections in cattle are subclinical--but cattle comprise the main reservoir of BTV virus. In the U.S., the principal vectors are C. sonorensis and C. insignis. Because the range of these two vectors is characteristically limited to southern and western regions of the U.S., bluetongue can be an important disease in susceptible species in these geographic regions. With exposure, sheep are the most likely species to come down with the disease. White-tailed deer, Pronghorn antelope and Desert Bighorn sheep are also susceptible to BTV infection. Bluetongue is of interest to APHIS because when it occurs in domestic animals, it must be reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). At least 26 serotypes of BTV have been identified worldwide. In the U.S., 13 serotypes (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13, 14, 17, 19, 22, and 24) have been reported; Types 2, 10, 11, 13 and 17 are considered endemic. The only vaccine approved for BTV is a modified-live vaccine against serotype 10 (which does not protect against any of the other serotypes).

Anthrax "sudden death" occurs worldwide and is associated with sudden death of cattle and sheep. Anthrax can infect all warm-blooded animals, including humans. The anthrax organism (Bacillus anthracis) has the ability to form spores and become resistant to adverse conditions. Pasteurization or ordinary disinfectants may destroy anthrax organisms in animals or their secretions. However, if the animal carcass is opened and the organisms are exposed to air, the bacilli will form spores. Sporulated anthrax organisms are highly resistant to heat, cold, chemical disinfectants and drying. The anthrax spore may live up to 5 years in surface soil (top 6 inches) of a contaminated pasture or yard, and indefinitely in deeper soils. Anthrax is highly fatal and treating affected animals is difficult. Penicillin is the antibiotic of choice. An effective vaccine is available (nonencapsulated, Sterne 34F2 strain). Because anthrax is a reportable disease, details on the use of the vaccine should be coordinated through the office of the state veterinarian.

Anaplasmosis results from a parasite in Red Blood Cells. It is also known as yellow-bag or yellow-fever. It is a vector-borne, infectious blood disease in cattle caused by the rickesttsial parasites Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma centrale. It occurs primarily in warm tropical and subtropical areas. The disease is not contagious but is transmitted most commonly by ticks, contaminated needles, dehorning equipment, castrating knives, tattoo instruments, biting flies and mosquitoes. Animals that recover from anaplasmosis are carriers and can spread the disease. The intracellular parasite destroys RBCs, causing anemia, fever, weight loss, breathlessness, uncoordinated movements, abortion and death. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and the examination of blood under microscope for evidence of the parasite. Affected cattle either die or begin a recovery within 4 days after the first signs of the disease. The mortality rate increases with the age of the animal. Unless infected cattle are detected during the early stages of the disease they should not be treated. If an animal with advanced anaplasmosis is forced to move or becomes excited, it may die from lack of oxygen, also antibiotic treatments do little or nothing to affect the outcome of the disease when given during advanced stages of the disease. Treatment consists of the administration of tetracycline. A vaccine is available that helps to reduce the severity of the infection. If you have any cattle with this disease it is very important to control ticks and follow strict sanitation procedures during vaccinations and other procedures to stop the spread of the disease to healthy animals.

New World Screwworm
of interest only to herd owners who live on or visit the Florida Keys.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) is a generally fatal disease of cattle, bison, true buffalo species, and deer. No vaccination, no cure. It is caused by viruses belonging to the Herpesvirus family. MCF occurs worldwide and is a serious problem in North America most especially for bison. MCF in bison & cattle is caused by a virus called ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2). Sheep infected with OvHV-2 are the principal source of MCF outbreaks in bison and cattle. The virus comes from sheep by contact, but does not spread from cow-to-cow by contact. Almost all sheep are carriers (over 98%), but the virus does not cause illness in sheep.

Mad Cow Disease, or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), is a progressive and fatal neurologic disease of cattle with no cure or vaccine. BSE is a reportable disease. Due to its etiology, Mad Cow Disease is not addressed in most herd health programs. Included here FYI, and to shed light on why cattle are not imported or exported between USA and UK or Europe. BSE exists in two forms which are believed to be biologically distinct:

  1. C-type Classical (Mad Cow Disease, zoonotic; linked to vCJD disease in humans, not found in USA)
  2. L-type ATypical (a spontaneous disease in older cows that can happen anywhere, but is very rare)
    H-type ATypical (a spontaneous disease in older cows that can happen anywhere, but is very rare)

The primary cause & source of infection for classical BSE is feed contaminated with the infectious prion agent, such as meat-and-bone meal containing protein derived from rendered infected cattle; the highest risk tissue comes from the brain and spinal cord. A variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in people was linked to exposure to the classical BSE in cattle. BSE was first diagnosed in 1986 in the United Kingdom, which has had the vast majority of cases worldwide. However, the disease has been detected in many other countries, including six cases in the United States from 2003 to 2012. Of the six U.S. cases, the first in 2003 was a case of classical BSE that was found in a cow imported from Canada. The rest have been atypical BSE. The 2 atypical BSE forms, L-type and H-type, occur rarely and spontaneously (no known cause), in cattle around the world; usually eight years of age or older.

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a severe and highly contagious viral disease that causes illness in cattle and other animals with cloven hooves. It is caused by one of the smallest disease producing viruses known. While many countries across the globe are dealing with FMD in their livestock populations, the United States eradicated the disease here in 1929. Elsewhere, FMD is a worldwide concern as it can spread quickly and cause significant economic losses. There are 7 known types and more than 60 subtypes of the FMD virus. Immunity to one type does not protect an animal against other types or subtypes. Here, APHIS works to prevent FMD from reentering the country. FMD has serious impacts on livestock trade—a single detection of FMD would likely stop international trade completely for a period of time. Since the disease can spread widely and rapidly and has grave economic consequences, FMD is one of the animal diseases livestock owners dread most. To help prevent its resurgence in USA, watch for excessive salivation & lameness in your herd. When traveling outside the United States, make sure that you do not bring back prohibited animal products or other at-risk materials.



State Movement Requirements
U.S. State and Territory Animal Import Regulations (APHIS)
State Veterinarians - contact information
Federal Veterinary Services Offices and Veterinarians (AVIC) - contact information
International Movement Requirements -
International Animal Export Regulations IRegs - (APHIS)
U.S. Live Animal Import Regulations including semen, embryos - (USDA-APHIS)

Master Beef Producer Health Management of Beef Cattle in Tennessee is a slide type presentation that provides a very basic, very good overview of general health management of a cow herd, and should help to point out any areas you may need improvement in, or need to do more research on.

cattletoday.info provides a basic outline of prevalent cattle diseases


The Merck Manual
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, DC

Northwoods Homestead, Idaho
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go home little cow
go home little cow

publisher: Vintage Publishers
published online: March 2019
author: Donna Grace